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If that doesn't work, there may be a network issue, and you can use our self test page to see what's preventing the page from loading. Learn more about possible network issues or contact support for more help. National Library Board Singapore. Search Search Search Browse menu. Sign in. Recent updates. In Europe, where it is less common for local exchange carriers to lease their lines to competitive thirdparties, service providers need affordable alternatives. Subsequently, wireless backhaul is used in approximately 80 percent of European cellular towers.
With the potential removal of the leasing requirement by the FCC, U. The robust bandwidth of Broadband on-demand. Last-mile broadband wireless access can help to accelerate the deployment of Broadband Internet connectivity is mission critical for many businesses, to the extent that these organizations may actually re-locate to areas where service is available. In todays market, local exchange carriers have been known to take three months or more to provision a T1 line for a business customer, if the service is not already available in the building.
Older buildings in metropolitan areas can present a tangle of wires that can make it difficult to deploy broadband connections to selected business tenants. In these applications, operators use Wireless technology makes it possible for the service provider to scale-up or scale-down service levels, literally within seconds of a customer request.
What People Are Saying about IEEE 802.16
On demand connectivity also benets businesses, such as construction sites, that have sporadic broadband connectivity requirements. Premium on demand last-mile broadband services represent a signicant new prot opportunity for operators. Residential broadband: lling the gaps in cable and DSL coverage. Practical limitations prevent cable and DSL technologies from reaching many potential broadband customers. Traditional DSL can only reach about 18, feet 3 miles from the central office switch, and this limitation means that many urban and suburban locations may not be served by DSL connections.
Cable also has its limitations. Many older cable networks have not been equipped to provide a return channel, and converting these networks to support high-speed broadband can be expensive. The cost of deploying cable is also a signicant deterrent to the extension of wired broadband service in areas with low subscriber density.
The current generation of proprietary wireless systems are relatively expensive.
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The IEEE This cost inefficiency will all change with the launch of standards-based systems based on In addition, the range of Underserved areas. Recent statistics show that there are more than 2, WISPs who take advantage of license-exempt spectrum to serve over 6, markets in the U. On an international basis, most deployments are in licensed spectrum and are deployed by local exchange carriers who require voice services in addition to high-speed data. This is because in these areas the wired infrastructure either does not exist or does not offer the quality to support reliable voice, let alone high-speed data.
The term, Wireless Local Loop is often used to describe. Best-connected wireless service.
As the number of IEEE By using a robust modulation scheme, IEEE Dynamic adaptive modulation allows the base station to tradeoff throughput for range. For example, if the base station cannot establish a robust link to a distant subscriber using the highest order modulation scheme, 64 QAM Quadrature Amplitude Modulation , the modulation order is reduced to 16 QAM or QPSK Quadrature Phase Shift Keying , which reduces throughput and increases effective range.
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To accommodate easy cell planning in both licensed and license-exempt spectrum worldwide, For example, if an operator is assigned 20 MHz of spectrum, that operator could divide it into two sectors of 10 MHz each, or 4 sectors of 5 MHz each. By focusing power on increasingly narrow sectors, the operator can increase the number of users while maintaining good range and throughput.
To scale coverage even further, the operator can re-use the same spectrum in two or more sectors by creating proper isolation between base station antennas. In addition to supporting a robust and dynamic modulation scheme, the IEEE As radio technology improves and costs drop, the ability to increase Licensed and Licensed-exempt Spectrum GHz 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Quality of Service. Voice capability is extremely important, especially in underserved international markets.
For this reason the IEEE Privacy and encryption features are included in the Standards are important for the wireless industry because they enable economies of scale that can bring down the cost of equipment, ensure interoperability, and reduce investment risk for operators. Without industry-wide standards, equipment manufacturers must provide all the hardware and software building blocks and platforms for themselves, including the fundamental silicon, the sub-. UPCS 1. Modified Radio Supplier Equipment manufacturers can focus on system design yielding faster innovation and better price-performance.
UNNI 5. With the IEEE With the For example, a volume silicon supplier can supply the same standard component to many equipment makers at a far lower cost than would be possible if the device manufacturers were required to develop proprietary silicon for use only by their equipment. Standards also specify minimum performance criteria for equipment, enabling a common broadband wireless access baseline platform that equipment manufacturers can use as the foundation for ongoing innovations and faster timeto-market.
With its broad industry support, the System Proles can address the regulatory spectrum constraints faced by operators in different geographies. For example, a service provider in Europe1 operating in the 3. WiMAX will establish a structured compliance procedure based upon the proven test methodology specied by.
In parallel,. The end result is a complete set of test tools that WiMAX will make available to equipment developers so they can design in conformance. The organization is working to facilitate the deployment of broadband wireless networks based on the IEEE In an effort to bring interoperability to Broadband Wireless Access, WiMAX is focusing its efforts on establishing a unique subset of baseline features grouped in what is referred to as System Proles that all compliant equipment must satisfy.
These proles will establish a baseline protocol that allows equipment from multiple vendors to interoperate, and that also provides system integrators and service providers with the ability to purchase equipment. Typically, this activity will begin when the rst integrated prototype becomes available. Ultimately, the WiMAX suite of conformance tests, in conjunction with interoperability events, will enable service providers to choose from multiple vendors of broadband wireless access equipment that conforms to the IEEE IEC is the International Electrotechnical Commission, a leading global organization that publishes international standards for all electrical, electronic, and related technologies.
WiMAX has key benets for operators.
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By choosing interoperable, standards-based equipment, the operator reduces the risk of deploying broadband wireless access systems. The cost and complexity associated with traditional wired cable and telephone infrastructure have resulted in signicant broadband coverage gaps in the U. Early attempts to use wireless technology to ll these coverage gaps have involved a number of proprietary solutions for wireless broadband access that have fragmented the market without providing signicant economies of scale. High-speed wireless broadband technology based on the IEEE