With that agreement, Congress abandoned one of the greatest reforms in American history: the attempt to incorporate ex-slaves into the republic with all the rights and privileges of citizens. The United States thus accepted a developing system of repression and segregation in the South that would take the name Jim Crow and persist for nearly a century. The freed people in the South found their choices largely confined to sharecropping and low-paying wage labor, especially as domestic servants.
Although attempts at interracial politics would prove briefly successful in Virginia and North Carolina, African American efforts to preserve the citizenship and rights promised to black men in the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments to the Constitution failed. Congress continued to pursue a version of reform in the West, however, as part of a Greater Reconstruction.
The federal government sought to integrate the West into the country as a social and economic replica of the North. Land redistribution on a massive scale formed the centerpiece of reform. Through such measures as the Homestead and Railroad Acts of , the government redistributed the vast majority of communal lands possessed by American Indian tribes to railroad corporations and white farmers.
To redistribute that land, the government had to subdue American Indians, and the winter of saw the culmination of the wars that had been raging on the Great Plains and elsewhere in the West since the end of the Civil War. Following the American defeat at the Battle of the Little Bighorn the previous fall, American soldiers drove the Lakota civil and spiritual leader Sitting Bull and his followers into Canada. They forced the war leader Crazy Horse to surrender and later killed him while he was held prisoner.
Sitting Bull would eventually return to the United States, but he died in at the hands of the Indian police during the Wounded Knee crisis. The defeat of the Lakotas and the utterly unnecessary Nez Perce War of ended the long era of Indian wars. There would be other small-scale conflicts in the West such as the Bannock War and the subjugation of the Apaches, which culminated with the surrender of Geronimo in , but these were largely police actions. The slaughter of Lakota Ghost Dancers at Wounded Knee in did bring a major mobilization of American troops, but it was a kind of coda to the American conquest since the federal government had already effectively extended its power from the Atlantic to the Pacific.
The treaty system had officially ended in , but Americans continued to negotiate agreements with the Indians. The goal of these agreements, and American land policy in general, was to create millions of new farms and ranches across the West. Not satisfied with already ceded lands, reformers—the so-called "Friends of the Indians" whose champion in Congress was Senator Henry Dawes—sought to divide reservations into individual farms for Indians and then open up most or all of the remaining land to whites.
The Dawes Act of became their major tool, but the work of the Dawes Commission in extended allotment to the Creeks, Cherokees, Seminoles, Chickasaws, and Choctaws in Indian Territory, which became the core of the state of Oklahoma. Land allotment joined with the establishment of Indian schools and the suppression of native religions in a sweeping attempt to individualize Indians and integrate them one by one into American society.
The policy would fail miserably. Indian population declined precipitously; the tribes lost much of their remaining land, and Indians became the poorest group in American society. Between and immigrants prompted much more concern among native-born white Americans than did either black people or Indian peoples. During these years there was a net immigration of approximately 7,, people into the United States.
During roughly the same period, the population of the country increased by about 27 million people, from about 49 million in to 76 million in Before the immigrants came largely from Western Europe and China. Taking the period between and as a whole, Germans comprised 28 percent of American immigrants; the British comprised 18 percent, the Irish 15 percent, and Scandinavians 11 percent. Together they made up 72 percent of the total immigration. At the end of the century, the so-called "New Immigration" signaled the rise of southern and eastern Europe as the source of most immigrants to America.
The Language of War
The influx worried many native-born Americans who still thought of the United States as a white Protestant republic. Many of the new immigrants did not, in the racial classifications of the day, count as white. As the century wore on, they were increasingly Catholic and Jewish. Immigrants entered every section of the country in large numbers except for the South. They settled in northeastern and midwestern cities and on western and midwestern farms. The Pacific and mountain West contained the highest percentage of immigrants of any region in and The immigrants forged networks that shaped how and where they migrated and the kinds of communities they established.
Chain migrations linked migrants to prior migrants. Early arrivals wrote home to bring family, friends, and neighbors to the United States. Over large swaths of Minnesota, the Dakotas, and elsewhere German was the primary language of daily life. Tensions between immigrants and the native born over the language to be spoken in public schools, Sunday closures of businesses sabbatarianism , and temperance reform often put cultural issues and practices at the center of local and state politics. Taken together, immigration and the end of Reconstruction triggered an anti-democratic movement to restrict access to the ballot box.
They advocated restrictions on voting as a way to check corruption, elevate political culture, and marginalize those—they had in mind immigrants and blacks—whom they thought incapable of meeting the obligations of republican politics. They sought political changes that would make it far more difficult for the poor and immigrants to vote.
Over time, through poll taxes, residence requirements, literacy requirements, and more, they would succeed.
Language of War by James Dawes
The mass politics and high voting rates characteristic of late nineteenth-century America would not outlive the era. Attempts to restrict suffrage were part of a strong political and social backlash against immigrants that developed over the course of the century. The United States welcomed immigrants because they were essential to its growing economy, but nativists opposed immigrants as antithetical to American culture and society. They thought of immigrants as exotic and inassimilable.
In certain situations, however, nativists had allies who were immigrants or the children of immigrants. Workers, both immigrant and native born, often feared that corporations were using contract labor—workers recruited abroad at lower wages than those paid American workers—to undermine American working conditions and the American family, which they defined as a working man whose wife maintained the home. They opposed certain kinds of immigration. One of the forgotten reforms of the period, the Foran Act of , outlawed contract labor, but the law proved difficult to enforce.
Alliances of some native-born Americans with some immigrants against other immigrants proved most effective in the case of the Chinese. Roughly , Chinese immigrated to the United States between and , and they became the personification of both the inassimilable immigrant and the contract worker. Although the Chinese came as free laborers, they were often branded as coolies: abject semi-slaves, whose low standard of living allowed them to thrive on wages that could not support white families. Racists had previously claimed that superior Anglo-Saxons would inevitably replace "inferior" races.
But in the West, while Sinophobes saw the Chinese as exotic and inferior, they also thought the Chinese would triumph over the supposedly superior white men because they were efficient workers. Immigrants and the native born formed mobs that attacked the Chinese at Rock Springs, Wyoming, in and expelled them from Tacoma, Washington, in and Seattle in Congress passed ten-year restrictions on Chinese immigration in and and a permanent exclusion act in Late in the nineteenth century, those who opposed immigration from Italy, Hungary, and elsewhere compared those groups to the Chinese.
Some immigrants could wrap themselves in the mantle of Americanism if they were "white" and Protestant. Protestant immigrants, particularly Scandinavians and Scots-Irish, joined the American Protective Association in to restrict Catholic immigration as it rode a larger wave of anti-Catholicism that swept over the country. Aimed initially at Irish and Catholic schools, anti-Catholicism increased its range as new Catholic immigrants began to arrive.
Although not all of them intended to stay, most immigrants came to the United States for economic opportunity. Cheap land and relatively high wages, compared to their home countries, were available regardless of citizenship. The Homestead Act did not require that settlers filing for land be American citizens, and the railroads not only sold their land grants cheaply, they advertised widely in Europe.
The results of this distribution of fertile and largely accessible land were astonishing. Furthermore, the film " The Negro Soldier ", a government produced documentary also directed by Frank Capra, challenged racial stereotypes in the ranks. Its popularity allowed it to pass over into mainstream distribution. The film The Purple Heart was used to dramatize Japanese atrocities and the heroics of American flyers. World War II transformed the possibilities for animation.
Prior to the war, animation was seen as a form of childish entertainment, but that perception changed after Pearl Harbor was attacked. On 8 December , the U. Army personnel were stationed at his studio and lived there for the duration of the war. The U. Army and Disney set about making various types of films for several different audiences. Most films meant for the public included some type of propaganda, while films for the troops included training and education about a given topic. Films intended for the public were often meant to build morale. They allowed Americans to express their anger and frustration through ridicule and humor.
Many films simply reflected the war culture and were pure entertainment. Others carried strong messages meant to arouse public involvement or set a public mood. Cartoons such as Bugs Bunny Bond Rally and Foney Fables pushed viewers to buy war bonds, while Scrap Happy Daffy encouraged the donation of scrap metal, and Disney's The Spirit of '43 implored viewers to pay their taxes.
The most elaborate training film produced, Stop That Tank! These fictional characters were used to give soldiers safety briefs and instructions on expected behavior, while often portraying behavior that which was not recommended. The short Spies depicts an intoxicated Private Snafu giving secrets to a beautiful woman who is really a Nazi spy.
Through the information he gives her, the Germans are able to bomb the ship Private Snafu is traveling on, sending him to hell. Animation was increasingly used in political commentary against the Axis powers. Der Fuehrer's Face  was one of Walt Disney's most popular propaganda cartoons. It poked fun at Hitler's Germany by depicting Donald Duck dreaming that he is a German war worker, eating breakfast by only spraying the scent of bacon and eggs onto his breath, dipping a single coffee bean into his cup of water, and eating bread so stale or having wood in it, he had to saw a piece off.
Disney and the U. Army wanted to depict Germans as living in a land that was a facade of the wonderful promises made by Hitler. Producers of the cartoon also wished to show that the working conditions in German factories were not as glorious as Hitler made them sound in his speeches. In the film, Donald works continuously with very little compensation and no time off, making him go crazy. At the end, Donald awakes from his nightmare and is forever thankful he is a citizen of the United States of America. Education for Death  was a very serious film based on the best-selling book of the same name by Gregor Ziemer.
The film shows how a young boy in Nazi Germany is indoctrinated and brainwashed at an early age and learns to believe all that the German government tells him. While this short is educational, it also provides comic relief by mocking Hitler.
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However, the film is both shocking in its content and despairing in its ending, depicting the death of numerous such boys who are now German soldiers. Magazines were a favored propaganda dissemination tool, as they were widely circulated. The government issued a Magazine War Guide which included tips for supporting the war effort.
Magazine editors were asked to depict women as coping heroically with the sacrifices of wartime. The pulp magazine industry was especially supportive, if only to prevent their being perceived as unessential to the war effort and discontinued for the duration of the war. Among the suggestions were a detective who was "cheerful" about following a suspect without using an automobile, a woman working in a traditionally male job , the importance of the 35 miles per hour speed limit and carpooling , and good Chinese and British characters.
Newspapers were told that government press releases would be true, and to give no aid and comfort to the enemy—but this latter was not to be considered a prohibition on releasing bad news. As in Britain, American propaganda depicted the war as an issue of good versus evil , which allowed the government to encourage its population to fight a "just war," and used themes of resistance in and liberation to the occupied countries.
Roosevelt proclaimed that the war against the dictatorships had to take precedence over the New Deal. Artists and writers were strongly divided on whether to encourage hatred for the enemy, which occasioned debates. In one speech, Henry Wallace called for post-war efforts to psychologically disarm the effect of the Axis powers, requiring schools to undo, as far as possible, the poisoning of children's minds by Hitler and the Japanese "warlords. Seuss's editorial cartoon showed Uncle Sam using bellows to drive germ out of the mind of the child "Germany," while holding the child "Japan" ready for the next treatment.
Hitler was often depicted in situations ridiculing him, and editorial cartoons usually depicted him in caricature. For example, in an editorial cartoon by Dr. Seuss , a German father scolded his hungry son, telling him that the Germans ate countries, not food. Nazi Germany was treated as the worst evil within the Axis, a greater threat than Japan and Italy. Without such involvement, public pressure to more heavily support the war in the Pacific might have proven irresistible to American leaders. Germans were often stereotyped as evil in films and posters,  although many atrocities were specifically ascribed to Nazis and Hitler specifically, rather than to the undifferentiated German people.
Alternate history novels depicted Nazi invasions of America to arouse support for interventionism. The Writers' War Board compiled lists of books banned or burned in Nazi Germany and distributed them for propaganda purposes, and thousands of commemorations of the book burnings were staged. Mussolini also appeared in situations ridiculing him. Propaganda portrayed the Japanese more than any other Axis power a foreign, grotesque and uncivilized enemy. Even prior to the Attack on Pearl Harbor , accounts of atrocities in China roused considerable antipathy for Japan. Propaganda based on the attack on Pearl Harbor was used with considerable effectiveness, because its outcome was enormous and impossible to counter.
The early overwhelming Japanese successes led to a pamphlet "Exploding the Japanese 'Superman' Myth" to counter the effect. Japanese calls for devotion to death were used to present a war of extermination as the only possibility, without any question as to whether it was desirable. It is your duty to see that he does so. Hirohito and undifferentiated "Japs" were often portrayed in caricature.
Seuss 's editorial cartoons, which often depicted Hitler and Mussolini, opted for a "Japan" figure rather than any given leader. One OWI suggestion for adapting "pulp" formulas was a sports story of a professional baseball team touring Japan, which would allow the writers to show the Japanese as ruthless and incapable of sportsmanship. At the beginning of the war artists portrayed the Japanese as nearsighted, bucktoothed, harmless children.
In countries occupied by Japan and forced to join its would-be Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere , the failure to sustain the economic level prior to the war, particularly in the Philippines , was quickly used in propaganda about the "Co-Poverty Sphere. Leaflets air-dropped to the Japanese people informed them of the Potsdam Declaration , which brought to bear the extent of Allied victory, and of the Japanese government's peace negotiations, undermining the ability of the Japanese hard-liners to insist on continued war.
Many posters ridiculed and shamed careless talk as providing information to the enemy, resulting in Allied deaths. His effort presented to the public as a device to prevent people with sensitive information from talking about it where spies or saboteurs could listen in. The problem was with negative rumors, that spread much faster than good news, and threaten to weaken homefront morale or make American groups fear or hate each other. Historian D'Ann Campbell argues that the purpose of the wartime posters, propaganda, and censorship of soldiers' letters was not to foil spies but, "to clamp as tight a lid as possible on rumors that might lead to discouragement, frustration, strikes, or anything that would cut back military production.
Some of these posters contained the most well known slogans of the war and many were depicted by propaganda artist Cyril Kenneth Bird. Rumor mongering was discouraged on the grounds it fomented divisions in America and promoted defeatism and alarmism. Battle victories and heroism were promoted for morale purposes, while losses and defeats were underplayed.
Despite his blunders in the first days of the war, General Douglas MacArthur was presented as a war hero due to the dire need for one. Navy overstated the Japanese damage. Life warned that Midway did not mean that Japan was no longer on the offensive. In , the survivors of the Battle of Savo Island were removed from public circulation to prevent news from leaking, and the August 9th disaster did not reach the newspapers until mid-October.
Limiting the distribution of bad news caused difficulty with gasoline rationing , as Americans were kept unaware of numerous tanker sinkings. Earlier, people complained that the government was covering up the extent of the damage at Pearl Harbor, although this was partly to keep it from the Japanese. The Japanese had a good idea of the damage they inflicted, so only Americans were kept ignorant. Joseph Goebbels countered this propaganda to prevent it from influencing Germany, downplaying the defense of Corrigidor and attacking Douglas MacArthur as a coward.
This was not very successful, as the German people knew it understated the American defense and that MacArthur had left under orders. After Guadalcanal, attention was focused on Europe, where Italy was taken, heavy bombing was hammering Germany, and the Red Army was steadily advancing west. Some propaganda was directed to counter people's hopes that it would not be a long, hard war. Despite air victories in Europe, Dr. Seuss depicted Hitler as a mermaid destroying Allied shipping. War Department supported the syndication of Bill Mauldin 's cartoons because Mauldin was making the war appear bitter and onerous, showing that the victory would not be easy.
His depiction of U. Until , the mayhem of war dead and wounded was mostly toned down by American propagandists, who followed instructions allowing them to show a few wounded soldiers in a crowd. Later, more realistic presentations were allowed, partly owing to popular demand. When The Battle of San Pietro showed dead GIs wrapped in mattress covers, some officers tried to prevent troopers in training from seeing it, for fear of morale; General Marshall overrode them, to ensure that the soldiers took their training seriously.
The OWI emphasized to returning, battle-scarred soldiers that there were places and jobs for them in civilian life. Americans were called upon to support the war effort in many ways. Although it never did, he spent years revising it and particularly the part about Guernica. He chose it as the subject of the doctorate that he did at the Sorbonne, and worked on it as a visiting researcher at the University of California.
The thesis became Guernica! The full title of the book is, Guernica!
A Study of Journalism, Propaganda and History and it is about all of those things. It is just an astonishing treasure trove about many aspects of the civil war. It is all seen through the prism of Guernica, but there is so much in it about the propaganda services of the nationalists, how lies are disseminated. Obviously, he was interested in journalists, having been one and knowing most of the main journalists who worked on the Republican side.
There is so much about the press which inspired my lifelong interest in the journalists. I wrote a book about war correspondents during the civil war which I wrote for Herbert. It came out after he had died but the book was dedicated to him. And he certainly had a lot of influence on other historians, particularly in Spain. So I thought that, given that these will be five books aimed at people starting to be interested in the Spanish Civil War or indeed people who we might want to get interested in the subject, it would be a good idea to have a big colourful account of the war.
Both books are very similar, both very lively and well written. It has been revised several times. I was his research assistant at one point for the third edition, which was the biggest revision.
It is immensely colourful. It really is a remarkable achievement that when I go back and look at this book, which is now 50 years old, I find his take on things is still fresh. I always find I can get some inspiration from picking it up. And for anyone who has never read anything on the Spanish Civil War it is an immediately gripping book that shows just how much the subject has to offer. There is that sense of the rich cornucopia of characters and topics which, as I mentioned before, is what got me interested in the subject all those years ago. Five Books aims to keep its book recommendations and interviews up to date.
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