Best practices for social work with refugees and immigrants

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The Representation Of Mental Illnesses And Disorders In Animation

Where possible, a mental health officer should also agree to it. You should not be given any treatment unless you agree to it, except for urgent treatment. The hospital must ensure an approved medical practitioner examines you as soon as possible. The hospital should give you information about your stay in hospital and explain your rights. They should also let you know how to get help from an independent advocate. There is no appeal against an emergency detention certificate.

The Scottish Government has produced guides on the Mental Health Act which, although under review, may be helpful to people receiving care and treatment and their carers. Click here to view the Scottish Government's guides. Short-term detention should be the usual route into hospital under the law, as there are more safeguards for the individual.

It can only take place if recommended by a psychiatrist and a mental health officer. Your named person should also be consulted. The hospital must appoint a psychiatrist as your responsible medical officer RMO. Your RMO should examine you, talk to you to find out your wishes, read your advance statement if you have one, and decide if you need treatment.

If your doctor feels that treatment is in your best interests, this can be given without your consent. They should help you to get an independent advocate. You, or your named person, can appeal against your short-term detention to the Mental Health Tribunal. Click here to view the Scottish Government's guide to short-term detention certificates. A compulsory treatment order CTO allows for a person to be treated for their mental illness.

The CTO will set out a number of conditions that you will need to comply with. These conditions will depend on whether you have to stay in hospital or are in the community. The application must include two medical reports, an MHO report and a proposed care plan.

The Tribunal decides whether a CTO is to be granted. The Tribunal is made up of three people - a lawyer, a psychiatrist, and another person with relevant skills and experience, e. The CTO can last up to six months. It can be extended for a further six months and then for periods of 12 months at a time.

Social Media and Adolescents’ and Young Adults’ Mental Health

You can be given medical treatment while on a CTO if the Tribunal agree to it, or in an emergency. Your responsible medical officer RMO must follow the safeguards outlined in part 16 of the Mental Health Act when giving you treatment. You have the right to an independent advocate. This is someone who helps you say what you think about your treatment.

Your MHO should let you know how to get help from an independent advocate. If a compulsory treatment order is made you, or your named person, can apply to the Tribunal for it to be removed once the order has been in force for three months. Your RMO should keep the need for the order under constant review, and can revoke it if you no longer need to be subject to the order.

See the guide to CTOs here.

My interest is

The Mental Health Act principles were created to help people understand how the law should work in practice. The principles were developed through consultation about what people felt was important to them, when they were being treated for a mental disorder. People who have received care and treatment and carers, as well as professionals, were involved in this consultation. The principles are a set of guidelines for how professionals should work when providing treatment and care under the Act.

Take your past and present wishes into account.

Make sure you get the information and support you need to take part in decisions. Take the views of your carer, named person, guardian, or welfare attorney into account. Look at the full range of options for your care. Give you treatment that provides maximum benefit.

Take account of your background, beliefs, and abilities. Make sure that any restrictions on your freedom should be the 'minimum necessary in the circumstances'. Make sure that you are not being treated less favourably than other patients. Make sure your carers' needs are taken into account and they get the information and support they need to help them care for you.

Take special care of your welfare if you are under 18 years of age.

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A Most Misunderstood Illness | National Education Alliance for Borderline Personality Disorder

If you feel the principles are not being applied to your care and treatment, you should speak to your doctor responsible medical officer. You may want to get some help from an independent advocacy service who can provide support, and help you get your views across. You can also phone us on We can help by discussing what the principles mean for your care and treatment.

Under the Mental Health Care and Treatment Scotland Act, people with learning disabilities and people with a mental illness have a right to independent advocacy. You do not have to be in hospital or under any mental health act in order to get this right to independent advocacy. Independent advocacy helps you to make your voice stronger and to have as much control as possible over your life. It is called independent because advocates and advocacy workers are separate from services.

They do not work for hospitals, social work, or other services. Some people need support to speak up, to understand what is being said, and to make decisions. Many people find that when they feel ill or upset they are not as good at saying what they want and they need support to speak up. There are some times when it is especially important for you to get advocacy support.

These times may be when you are:. If you need treatment under the Mental Health Care and Treatment Scotland Act you can choose someone to help protect your interests.

Facebook: A Growing Phenomenon

A child under the age of 16 cannot nominate a named person. The person with parental responsibilities for them is automatically their named person.


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You can have an independent advocate and a named person. As it turns out, well-adjusted children tend to put their best foot forward, broadcasting only their best attributes and qualities online. They choose what to reveal about themselves and filter or minimize negative characteristics. They are able, in other words, to promote a somewhat deceptively positive sense of self.

The positive spin that popular kids put on Facebook ends up widening the disconnect between how less well-adjusted or unpopular kids view others and how they view themselves. However, it is unknown whether Facebook Depression is a distinct phenomenon or an extension of depression adolescents feel in other circumstances.

The American Psychiatric Association does not list Facebook Depression or Internet addiction in its diagnostic manual. This risk increases with only two or more hours spent online. The number of social media platforms used and how often they are used is related to youth mental health. A recent study found that the more social media platforms an adolescent uses, the more likely they are to have symptoms of depression and anxiety, regardless of overall time spent on social media. Another study looked at social media use and social isolation among U. The study used a nationally representative sample of 1, year-olds.

The study found that those who visited any platforms at least 58 times per week were three times more likely to feel socially isolated compared to those who used social media fewer than 9 times per week. In addition to feelings of social isolation and depression, social media has also been found to be associated with self-image. A study found that greater Instagram use was associated with greater self-objection and concern about body image.

It is obvious that not all social media sites are healthy environments for adolescents. Bullying, cliques, and sexual experimentation are just as prevalent online as offline. However, age is based on self-report, so children younger than 13 can simply lie about their age and open accounts. Most parents do not fully comprehend social networking sites. Parental supervision is as valuable online as it is offline in instilling values and safeguards. Parents should check in regularly with their children to ensure that their online behavior is appropriate.

Although it is tempting to accomplish this through frequent monitoring, this can result in distrust between parent and child.

Women's Health Care Physicians

Parents should talk about appropriate media use early and build a relationship of trust surrounding social media. This way, when there is a problem your teen will be more likely to talk to you. For additional information on guiding your children through the internet and social networking, visit the following websites: Common Sense Media, Connect Safely, and Safe Teens. If you think you or your child might be using social media too much or that social media may be affecting your mental health or the health of someone you know, consider these tips:.

Consider how you would ideally like to spend your time. Ask yourself: How much time do I want to spend using social media? This was combined with the consideration given to the role of diagnosis described by other participants - for example considering the role of diagnosis in allowing the individual to make sense of their experience within a specific framework, or allowing access to social benefit financial payments. Dx pls! This representation of diagnosis as having primacy over understanding of background experience was not reflected in other statements that focussed more on the nature of mental disorder diagnoses:.

Participants also expressed concern relating to a loss of the sense of self for the individual following diagnosis; where behaviours and identity were subsumed within presumed illness states. The stigma that attended receiving a mental disorder diagnosis was commented upon and clinicians were called on to focus on the delivery of care in an appropriately holistic and humane manner. I am not just a diagnosis. Not a statistic. Not a number. People still need help, even if been taught awkward ways of asking.

This theme contained tweets which discussed the role of power, the ability to exert influence and control over a situation, and its reflection in the experience of mental distress. This perceived power could be held solely by individuals, shared between the service user and professional or abused by different parties.

Through participation in this discussion individuals join a wider discourse that considers the balance of power between professional and service user. Within mental health practice a tension is still perceived however between the concepts of sharing power and more traditional models of care that ultimately consider risk and its control as paramount [ 13 ].

Tweets coded within this theme represented the greatest volume of material and reflected on various aspects of communication between professionals as well as professional attitudes while also highlighting the multitude of other agencies involved in the support of mental distress for example the police, primary care professionals and emergency medical services.

The need to relate to individuals with compassion, particularly at times of crisis and to ensure clear lines of communication between professionals, service users and carers were emphasised. We need to learn from and with those whom we serve. Who am I supposed to trust when I am so vulnerable? Carers also need cared for. A large number of statements within this theme, coded as critical , were reflections of dissatisfaction with the care received. Aside from the negative valence of the content, these comments were difficult to interpret as they were often brief, or referred to specific events without detail.

A number of conversation participants did however make statements that, while critical in nature, also clarified their cause for concern relating to the mental health, learning or professionalism of care providers; indicating perhaps an acknowledgement of work done in difficult circumstances yet requesting greater sympathy in addition to that already offered. A few need to remember we're people. The majority of material within this theme referred to concerns relating to an over reliance on medication as the primary treatment in response to mental distress.

Also highlighted were concerns regarding side and withdrawal effects relating to psychotropic medication. Other comments focussed on the role of psychotherapy - emphasising the importance of psychological service provision, but also bemoaning the limited availability of varying therapeutic modalities. A number of comments in this theme also highlighted the role of treatments that would be considered non-standard in terms of currently published clinical guidance. These comments perhaps represent an acceptance of such online forums as a space in which treatments beyond the mainstream may be discussed openly.

The role of care planning was discussed, particularly the role of identifying crisis management plans, for example advance directives:. The nature of service provision was discussed focussing primarily on practical considerations relating to access to care, availability of services and resourcing. Concerns described included the perception of diagnostic criteria, for example specific weight restrictions, being used to approve access to care. Also particularly prevalent was the availability of services outside of the working, nine to five, day.

Some respondents also related their comments about mental health service support to the wider society, with participants suggesting that messages directed at mental health professionals could be reflected more generally, with an implicit reference to the experience of stigma:. But pls acknowledge that sometimes the world needs changing, not me. Lots of it applies to society as a whole. The presented study sought to use a case study conversation to explore the utilisation of online social media, in terms of its role as a social space for communication regarding the experience of mental disorder and as a means of understanding feedback on the experience of provided mental health care.

Much of the discussion identified by the search strategy was concrete in nature - discussing aspects of the care experience and practical means of addressing the concerns raised. Parallel to this however, was a discussion that focussed more on individual experience in mental disorder. For example considering the role and nature of mental disorder diagnoses; reflecting on diagnosis as a means of accessing care, or support, but also on the manner of their construction and development. Participants also considered the difficulties experienced within therapeutic relationships and their reflection in a wider societal context.

That these topics received consideration within the conversation thread may represent the potential of social media platforms to allow discussion, reflection and sharing of experience by participants within the space provided. Although a limiting factor to this engagement is that potential participants, who may benefit from such discussion, may be excluded due to lack of internet access, therefore favouring the voices of those with sufficient privilege to access the space.

The nature of the Twitter platform, with a character limit on communications, could be considered as reducing the potential for in-depth discussion. However the frequent presence of links to external resources, found through the reported search strategy, illustrate its potential strength as a central hub of discussion facilitating the coordination of groups of individuals with shared experience or interests.

In this way, internet social media could be seen as providing a discursive resource that can provide access to greater numbers of people with shared experiences than may be expected through standard, more corporeal, social networks. This may allow for the development of larger support networks or for more direct communication between service users and professionals to be facilitated.

Online social media could therefore provide a resource through which barriers to feedback, traditionally encountered by mental health services, can be overcome, as well as providing a medium which is readily amenable to data collection and analysis allowing rapid interpretation of feedback. The phenomena of social media platforms being used as such a resource has been previously explored, primarily for resources relating to physical health care. Considering the role of internet based forums for discussion of HIV related issues, particularly disclosure of HIV status to sexual partners, Rier reported how such resources provided support in terms of information and discussion but how the material could often become deeply moralistic and inflammatory in nature [ 14 ].

This may therefore represent a risk in the nature of discussion that can occur through such fora. Rier [ 14 ] commented on the scarcity of novel arguments within the content of material he observed. It is possible that participants may choose to engage with material that serves only to reinforce their currently held beliefs.


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This possibility is reinforced by an observation of social network construction within a free space as described by Centola and Van der Rijt [ 15 ]. In this study the authors observed that participants choosing contacts within a newly forming network preferentially selected individuals who closely matched them in terms of reported characteristics, potentially reducing the ability of networks to allow debate or encourage change.

There is also potential value for social media resources for health professionals to aid in the development of collaborative relationships with service users. Surveying a group of mental health practitioners in the United States, Deen and colleagues found a high prevalence of experience with social media usage among professionals but identified a confusion regarding the role of such resources in clinical practice. Some of their participants describing searching internet resources for information relating to their patients, but reflecting on the complex ethical issues surrounding this practice [ 1 ].

This professional involvement, which may potentially be viewed as invasive, would need careful consideration for its acceptability by mental health service users. This difficulty was recently highlighted through negative on-line response to the efforts of the charity Samaritans www. The themes identified within this study provide important messages to mental health providers - highlighting the features that mental health service users view as crucial to service provision including the need for understanding the implications of diagnosis and the importance of therapeutic relationships.

These findings do not represent novel discussions as the role and importance of the therapeutic relationship within mental health care has been well described in the academic literature [ 17 ] and the difficulties with providing a service that is primarily biomedical in nature for example have been frequently commented upon [ 18 , 19 ] and continues to generate much debate [ 20 ]. Despite this lack of novelty the spontaneous nature of the discussion is perhaps remarkable - this conversation represented a previously unadvertised event emerging solely through user participation, its themes are representative of a wider discourse and serve to demonstrate the salience of such discussion within modern society and the role of social media in supporting and empowering mental health service users.

As the greatest strength of the material observed in this study likely lies in its spontaneity, it represents a phenomenon that may be difficult to reproduce in a purposive manner. This may raise difficulties for mental health services seeking to exploit the media as a means of eliciting feedback - although the volume of material produced may indicate that this is an acceptable medium of communication for mental health service users.


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The geographical reach of the analysed conversation is difficult to determine owing to the efforts made to preserve the anonymity of participants. The topics of discussion imply that the conversation was primarily held between respondents within the United Kingdom and United States. This wide reach may limit the specific applicability of findings - for example discussions relating to the costing of insurance and medical service provision is, currently, of limited interest to participants in the UK.

As such it is possible that lessons for specific geographical regions may be lost within the broader conversation. Mental health providers looking to develop findings specific to their service may seek to directly approach individuals within their identified geographical region; a risk of such an approach however would be the loss of spontaneity and also possible restriction of dialogue through direct observation by professionals. Additionally the restriction of needing internet access in order to participate in the conversation may mean that it is not entirely representative for all mental health service users.

The analysis of this conversation is limited to being descriptive in nature owing to the nature of the subject material. As has been commented above some participants bypassed the character limit through providing links to external resources. These materials were not examined in order to preserve anonymity but may provide a valuable resource for future research, with author consent. As the analysis strategy was primarily descriptive in nature the impact of author theoretical allegiance is likely minimal but was addressed and discussed during research supervision and through iterative draft writing in the representation of analysis and findings.

The search strategy adopted for this study sought to capture material generated on two days. The nature of the search engine available on the website www. Ultimately it can not be guaranteed that the search strategy was totally comprehensive in its reach. However for the purpose of this analysis it can be argued that the volume of material identified supports the validity of findings.

The precise identity of participants in this project can not be verified. However for the purpose of this study it is proposed that self-identification as a mental health service user, through participation in the online conversation, allows an initial exploration of the role of online social media as a social space to be made.