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Concerning the steady-state gas response Sgas the following References features stand: [1] W. Schierbaum, SnO2 sensors: current status and future trends, Sens. Actuators B 26 1— Williams, Conduction and gas response of semiconductor gas sensors, ature under conditions at which the sensor surface is covered in: Solid State Gas Sensors, Adam Hilger, Bristol, Ihokura, J.

Morrison, Chemical sensors, in: S. Sze Ed. Shurmer, J. Gardner, H. Chan, The application of discrimination termination sites; technique to alcohols and tobaccos using tin-oxide sensors, Sens. Actuators - the Sgas features of HD sensors can be satisfactorily explained 18 — Gardner, P. Bartlett, Electronic Noses: Principles and Applications, in terms of the surface transfer doping model of diamond.

Oxford University Press, Oxford, Menzel, J. Goschnick, Gradient gas sensor microarrays for on-line pro- With regard to the kinetics of the gas response, we note that: cess control—a new dynamic classification model for fast and reliable air quality assessment, Sens. Actuators B 68 — Ahlers, G. Doll, in: C. Grimes, E. Dickey, M. Pisko Eds. Barsan, M. Schweizer-Berberich, W.


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The highest maximum oper- cal aspects in the design of nanoscaled SnO2 gas sensors: a status report, ation temperatures are determined by the evaporation limit of Fresenius J. Barsan, U. Weimar, Conduction model of metal oxide gas sensors, J. Chang, Oxygen chemisorption on tin oxide: Correlation between elec- - in addition to temperature, O3 and UV light exposure effec- trical conductivity and EPR measurements, J.

Cabot, A. Morante, Analysis of the catalytic activity and [35] F. Maier, J. Ristein, L. Ley, Electron affinity of plasma-hydrogenated and electrical characteristics of different modified SnO2 layers for gas sensors, chemically oxidized diamond 1 0 0 surfaces, Phys. B 64 Sens. Actuators B 84 12— Koh, Surface processes in detection of reducing gases with SnO2 -based [36] S. Doll, A rate equation approach to the gas sensitivity devices, Sens. Actuators 18 71— Actuators B — [14] T. Doll Ed. Kang, Y. Gurbuz, J. Davidson, D. Kerns, New hydrogen sensor 6. Becker, S. Ziemann, Soc. Hechtenberg, Air pollution monitoring using tin-oxide-based microre- [38] Y.

Gurbuz, W. Kang, J. Kerns, Diamond microelec- actor systems, Sens. Actuators B 69 — Actuators B [16] Z. Jie, H. Li-Hua, G. Shan, Z. Hui, Z. Jing-Gui, Alcohols and acetone sens- 99 — Actuators [39] K. Soh, W. Davidson, Y. Wong, A. Wisitsora-at, G. Swain, B — Cliffel, CVD diamond anisotropic film as electrode for electrochem- [17] H.

Wang, Y. Li, M. Yang, Fast response thin film SnO2 gas sensors ical sensing, Sens. Actuators B 91 39— Actuators B — Comini, G. Faglia, G.

Actuators B 78 73— Anothainhart, M. Burgmair, A. Karthigeyan, M. Zimmer, I. Eisele, Light Sciences studying in the field of nano-technology in after graduating in enhanced NO2 gas sensing with tin oxide at room temperature: conductance precision- and micro-engineering in Also in , he started as doctoral and work function measurements, Sens. Actuators B 93 — Yang, H. Lin, B. Wie, C. Wu, C. Lin, UV enhancement of ment Microsystems and Electronics.

Currently he is working amongst other the gas sensing properties of nano-TiO2 , Rev. Helwig, G. Eickhoff, G. Sberveglieri, G.

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Faglia, Gas sensing properties of and obtained a PhD degree in Landstrass, K. Ravi, Hydrogen passivation of electrically active work on ion implantation and nuclear solid state physics. In , he changed defects in diamond, Appl. Maki, S. Shikama, M. Komori, Y. Sakaguchi, K. Sakuta, T. Kobayashi, amorphous silicon. MBB , where he performed development work on thin film solar-cell mod- 31 L—L Since , he has been active in the field of silicon micromachining and [25] F. Maier, M.

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Riedel, B. Mantel, J. McEvoy and K. Furthermore, M-RS analysis on the surfaces of devices at intermediate stages of oxidation showed lines which were consistent with the phase MoO 2 see FIG. Clearly, the oxidation of Mo thin films proceeds via the formation of the intermediate phase MoO 2 before completely oxidizing to MoO 3. Despite this effort, all attempts to reproducibly generate devices on the hotplate which consistently responded to CO proved to be unsuccessful. Even devices which initially demonstrated great sensitivity to CO in the first few weeks no longer responded to CO after that.

First, the surface of the as-deposited Mo metal thin film was cleaned with a snow jet before any annealing of the coupon took place. Third, thermal oxidation of the devices took place in a tube furnace in either a flowing O 2 atmosphere or in a static O 2 atmosphere pressured to values between 1.

This approach has unique advantages of 1 exposing the devices to a constant low humidity, 2 ensuring reproducibility of conditions for devices which need to be annealed under the same conditions, 3 controlling the heating and cooling rates to which the devices are exposed, and 4 having the flexibility of increasing the O 2 pressure to above 1 atm during annealing. In this new mask set, the sensing material was now deposited onto this interdigitated electrode array.

Fifth, a comprehensive database was established which contained detailed information about the device coupons before and after they were annealed. Many of the samples would initially respond to CO and then become non-responsive within a time period approaching one week. This is expected due to thermodynamic conversion from the beta- to the alpha-phase molybdenum oxide. The next candidate which was chosen for CO sensing has been the most studied of all gas-sensitive oxides, tin IV oxide SnO 2.

The major disadvantage of SnO 2 is its cross-sensitivity patterns. The microprocessor developed as a part of this invention will have the ability to manipulate the gate voltage, measure current through the CO sensor, compute a CO concentration, and drive a digital display and output to an alarm. The device box will likely contain both a piezo-based audible alarm and an LED based visual alarm. The microprocessor will be required to run more than one input channel.

An inactive reference sensor will be incorporated in the device to cancel aging and temperature drift. The reference channel will be measured along with the active sensor during each sampling cycle. Data samples are averaged to filter noise and converted to CO concentration levels. The on-board LCD display will be updated every 20 seconds or less. The same architecture will be fully compatible with a low-power RF link for remote readout.

An approximate duty cycle of 0. This holds total power consumption to approximately 2 mW, occurring at the 0. This low average power consumption enables long battery life. The present invention will be more easily and fully understood by the following example. The example is representative of a gas sensor in accordance with one embodiment of the present invention.

A sensor was prepared by growing molybdenum trioxide, as an exemplary sensing compound, in a thin film arranged as part of a thin film transistor architecture. The growth was via electron beam evaporation of molybdenum, followed by thermal oxidation of molybdenum. The structure of the film was characterized using a scanning electron microscope SEM. The film had a nanoparticle structure. The deposited metal film had a thickness of less than 20 nm. The sensor was operated at room temperature. The response was measured as the normalized ratio of R, the resistance in the presence of carbon monoxide, to Ro, to the resistance in the absence of carbon monoxide, as a function of time.

The results demonstrate that the response of the sensor may be tuned by varying the gate voltage. The results demonstrate the sensitive response of the sensor to low levels of gas. The response to CO is linear. These above-described results further demonstrate that the requirement of heating the sensor is eliminated so as to operate at room temperature 22 degrees C.

Thus, the sensor may operate at atmospheric temperatures encountered from ground level to up to 40, feet, and thus is adapted for use in an air plane or other high altitude application. Thus, a method of operating the sensor may include adjusting the gate voltage according to the temperature. The present inventors have further discovered that the gate bias can be tuned to different analyte gases at a wide range of concentrations. Thus, a method of operating a sensor according to an embodiment of the present invention may include tuning any one or combination of the gate bias and the sensing compound so as to select the analyte.

Although the present invention and its advantages has been described in detail, it should be understood that various changes substitutions and modifications can be made herein without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention as defined by the appended claims. Effective date : Year of fee payment : 4. An apparatus for sensing an analyte gas is provided. The apparatus may include a signal amplifier that may include a thin film transistor that may include a semiconducting film that may include a metal oxide capable of chemical interaction with the analyte gas, such as carbon monoxide.

The apparatus may be tuned for detecting the analyte gas by varying the gate voltage of the transistor. Technical Approach—Chemistry: Metal oxide chemistry is a driving force for this invention to sense an electron transfer from a surface reaction of an analyte gas. Microprocessor Development and Device Integration: The microprocessor developed as a part of this invention will have the ability to manipulate the gate voltage, measure current through the CO sensor, compute a CO concentration, and drive a digital display and output to an alarm. EXAMPLE A sensor was prepared by growing molybdenum trioxide, as an exemplary sensing compound, in a thin film arranged as part of a thin film transistor architecture.

A sensor for detecting the presence of an analyte gas, the sensor comprising: a substrate;. The sensor according to claim 1 , wherein the chemical interaction comprises electron transfer. The sensor according to claim 2 , wherein the electron transfer comprises electron donation by the carbon monoxide to the beta-molybdenum oxide. The sensor according to claim 2 , wherein the electron transfer comprises electron withdrawal by the carbon monoxide from the beta-molybdenum oxide. The sensor according to claim 2 , wherein the beta-molybdenum oxide has a rough surface where topography defines grain boundaries.

The sensor according to claim 1 , wherein the semiconducting layer comprises a thin film. The sensor according to claim 6 , wherein the thin film comprises a plurality of nanoparticles comprising the beta-molybdenum oxide. The sensor according to claim 7 , wherein the nanoparticles are spherical. The sensor according to claim 7 , wherein the nanoparticles are non spherical.

The sensor according to claim 7 , wherein the nanoparticles have homogeneous size. The sensor according to claim 1 , further comprising a gate bias between the first and third contacts, wherein the gate bias affects conductivity through the semiconducting layer. The sensor according to claim 11 , wherein the gate bias affects energy barriers between grain boundaries. The sensor according to claim 1 , wherein the detecting takes place without any thermal requirement.

The sensor according to claim 1 , wherein the sensor is configured to operate independent of temperature and as a function of gate voltage. The sensor according to claim 1 , wherein the sensor is configured to operate at variable conductivity levels. The sensor according to claim 1 , wherein the architecture is configured so that the detecting takes place without any thermal requirement. The sensor according to claim 1 , further comprising a gate bias between the first and third contacts, wherein the conductivity of the semiconducting layer is greater due to the gate bias.

USP true USA true USB2 en. Device comprising a gas sensor sensitive to the presence of a specific gas, method of manufacturing a gas sensor sensitive to the presence of a specific gas for use in the device and use of the device.

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Preparation method of organic thin film transistor-based carbon monoxide gas sensor. Adjustable sensor or sensor network to selectively enhance identification of select chemical species. Preparation method of OTFT organic thin-film transistor -based sulfur dioxide gas sensor. USA1 en. Sensors including metal oxides selective for specific gases and methods for preparing same.

Barsan, N. Comini, E. I-XII and Dieterle et al. Eranna, G. Fan, Zhiyong et al. Gutierrez-Osuna, R. Hisahito Ogawa et al. Wollenstein et al. Korotchenkov, Ghennady et al. Liu, H. Scheinert et al. McEvoy et al. Ming et al. Copyright-The Royal Society of Chemistry; Copyright—The Royal Society of Chemistry; Presley et al. D: Appl.

Ramirez et al. Spevack, et al. Tomchenko, Alexey A. Vincent et al. Yu, Choongho et al. Zhenan Tang et al. Wei et al. A novel SnO2 gas sensor doped with carbon nanotubes operating at room temperature. Hong et al. Tunable electronic transport characteristics of surface-architecture-controlled ZnO nanowire field effect transistors. Gigantic enhancement in sensitivity using Schottky contacted nanowire nanosensor. Gong et al. Sberveglieri et al.

Kong et al. Metal oxide hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon monoxide sensors for hydrogen setups and cells. Patil et al. Huang et al. Sunu et al. Van Hieu et al. Cheng et al. Mechanism and optimization of pH sensing using SnO2 nanobelt field effect transistors. Liu et al. High-performance chemical sensing using Schottky-contacted chemical vapor deposition grown monolayer MoS2 transistors.

Barsan et al. AUB2 en. Meinen, J. Drewke, E. Stockburger, Th. Lenarz, T. Golly, W. Saleh, T. Lenarz und T. Majaura, F. Borrmann, J. Stieghorst, c. Margenfeld and T. Tegtmeier, J. Tegtmeier, T. Benjamin, F. Riedel, N. Sendler, G. Pohlmann, C. Dasenbrock, T. Lenarz, B. Glasmacher and T. Stieghorst, P. Aliuos, O.

Majdani, T. Doll ; Presentation: Path to construct synthetic synapses for enhanced electrode-nerve interaction in neuroprostheses; S. Ebrahimpoor, C. Zeilinger, T.

USB2 - Gated beta-molybdenum oxide sensor - Google Patents

Doll , T. Lenarz, P. Meinen, E. Stockburger, J. Stieghorst, M. Tegtmeier, N. Burblies, T.

Aliuos, A. Bondarenkova, J. McCaughey, J. Stieghorst, K. McCaughey, T. Doll , P. Aliuos, V. Pikov, D. McCreery, J. Stieghorst, T. Lenarz; Presentation: Hydrogel-based self-bending mechanism for cochlear implants; J.